World Nutrition Journal 2022-05-31T13:22:01+00:00 World Nutrition Journal Open Journal Systems <div><img src="/OJS/public/site/images/admin/Grayscale_Studio_Photography_Presentation1.png" width="583" height="437"></div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div> <table class="data" style="height: 240px;" width="570" bgcolor="#fff67f"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="&quot;150px">Title<br>Website <br>ISSN<br>DOI Prefix <br>Subject<br>Frequency<br>Language<br>Indexed at<br>Citation</td> <td width="&quot;2px">:<br>:<br>:<br>:<br>:<br>:<br>:<br>:<br>:</td> <td width="&quot;400px">&nbsp; World Nutrition Journal <br>&nbsp; <a href=""></a> <br>&nbsp; <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2580-7013</a> (online)<br>&nbsp; 10.25220/WNJ <br>&nbsp; community, clinical and critical care aspects of nutrition <br>&nbsp; bi-annualy<br>&nbsp; English <br>&nbsp; DOAJ, Garuda, BASE, Scilit, Worldcat, etc.<br>&nbsp; <a title="Google Scholar Index" href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> Children’s behavior on sugar-sweetened beverages and factors that influence the consumption 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Saptawati Bardosono <p>For Indonesia children, the sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) drinking behavior is not yet a big problem as compared to other countries, such as Mexico or United States. However, although the soft-drink intake is very minimal, there is a trending higher intake of sweetened milks, sweetened teas dan packaged juice in a daily or weekly bases. Based on age, then the amount and the percentage of SSB consumer age 10–17 years is higher as compared to the younger or older age.</p> 2022-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Saptawati Bardosono Nutrition in Indonesia toddlers and preschools: understanding challenges and strategies 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Saptawati Bardosono <p>There is surely rapid development of toddler and preschool age children, especially related to human brain development. Poor development among under-five children in Indonesia in 2010 is ranged 40–59%. Global data shows that there is triple burden of malnutrition, and amongst improper behavior, the two highest clinical symptoms are hyperactivity and showing anger when displeased. This shows that children need nurturing care in which has its contribution through the life course.</p> 2022-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Saptawati Bardosono Water quality and the impact to the health 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Diana Sunardi <p>Water is the major constituent of the human body. Water is essential for life and maintaining optimal levels of hydration is important for humans to function well. Water makes up a large proportion of our body weight, distributed between the intracellular (inside cells) and extracellular (water in the blood and in between cells) compartments. Water is the major component of body fluids, such as blood, synovial fluid (fluid in the joints), saliva and urine, which perform vital functions in the body. Human body cannot produce enough water by metabolism or obtain enough water by food ingestion to fulfil its needs. As a consequence, we need to pay attention to what we drink throughout the day to ensure that we are meeting our daily water needs, as not doing so may have negative health effects.</p> 2022-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diana Sunardi Covid-19, nutrition and pseudoscientific claims 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Abdolreza Norouzy <p>The COVID‐19 infodemic is full of false claims, half backed conspiracy theories and pseudoscientific therapies, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, origin and spread of the virus.&nbsp;</p> <p>Correcting misrepresentations should be viewed as a professional responsibility</p> 2022-05-31T08:28:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abdolreza Norouzy Strategy to fulfill fiber requirement in children 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Diana Sunardi <p>Diet in childhood influences not only the immediate health of children but also may have an impact in a positive or negative manner on the future health status. Dietary fiber has many physiological effects including reducing postprandial glucose concentrations, improving fecal bulk, promoting laxation, interfering with fat and cholesterol absorption, and altering bacteria populations in the gut microbiome. The first years of life may be critical for the establishment of a healthy colonic microflora, as well as good eating habits.</p> 2022-05-31T08:30:46+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diana Sunardi Findings from Nutriplanet: how ready are we for healthy aging? 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Ray Wagiu Basrowi <p>Healthy aging has become one of the important focus in many countries. The World Health Organization and the United Nation have initiated The Healthy Aging Decade (2021 – 2030) which focus on collaborative efforts to reach healthy aging condition – a condition in which the senior population remains productive, has good quality of life and not become economic burden for the country. To reach this condition, one should put efforts as early as possible. In Indonesia, it is predicted that in 2040 there will be an increment in aging population. Pre-senior population (aged 45 – 60 years) will reach 17.5% and senior population (aged &gt;60 years) will reach 10.1%. These numbers will make Indonesia one of the countries with the highest senior population in the world.</p> 2022-05-31T08:35:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ray Wagiu Basrowi Special Group Discussion: nutrition and Covid-19 comparison in several countries 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Luciana B Sutanto <p>Patients with COVID-19 who are in the ICU considered to be extremely high malnutrition, which is caused by food intake matter and the disease itself. In critically ill, the definition of malnutrition is not only based on weight loss but also muscle wasting, sarcopenia and metabolic dysregulation. Good nutrition management prevents malnutrition getting worse. Nutritional theraphy is an essential element of the patients management.&nbsp; Nutritional screening and assessment, as well as nutritional management, should be integrated into general therapeutic strategy.&nbsp; Nutrition theraphy to ICU patients with COVID-19 has been published by some institutions/organizations.</p> 2022-05-31T08:45:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luciana B Sutanto Coenzyme Q-10: a potential role in alleviating long Covid-19 symptoms 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Juwalita Surapsari <p>Globally, as of mid&nbsp; August 2021 there have been more than 200 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 reported to WHO. About 80% of COVID-19 cases are asymptomatic and mild, and most of the cases resolved within 2-4 weeks. While severe pneumonia and critical multi-organ failure occurs in 15% and 5% respectively, and can last for 3-6 weeks. The post-COVID symptoms, initially referred to as ‘long COVID’ or ‘long-haul COVID’, are now collectively referred to as ‘post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection” (PASC).</p> 2022-05-31T08:47:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Juwalita Surapsari Feeding critically ill post Covid-19 patients 2022-05-31T13:21:58+00:00 Niken Puruhita <p>Currently, there has been no nutritional therapy guideline available for discharged Covid-19 patients in ICU. Only a small study which was carried in post Covid-19 patients in ICU reported the resting energy expenditure recorded were 20 kcal/kg/day. These number is similar with nutrition therapy recommendations for acute phase critically ill patients provided by ESPEN.</p> 2022-05-31T08:52:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Niken Puruhita Clinical nutrition and human rights: an international position paper 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Gil Hardy <p>Worldwide Societies for Clinical Nutrition have launched a promotional campaign that advocates for all patients to have access to food and evidence-based artificially administered nutrition and hydration (AANH). The campaign is supported by the simultaneous publication of a major position paper in, <em>Clinical Nutrition </em>and<em> Nutrition in Clinical Practice</em>, the official journals of the European and North American professional societies. The working group of experts in human rights and clinical nutrition, includes representatives of the American Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (ASPEN), The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN), Latin American Federation of Nutritional Therapy, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (FELANPE), Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia (PENSA) and the West African Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (WASPEN).</p> 2022-05-31T08:53:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gil Hardy Ethics and clinical nutrition practice challenge in Covid-19 patients 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Dian Permatasari <p>Covid-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus, became a major global human threat that has turned into a pandemic. Pandemics present difficult logistical, medical and ethical challenges to the medical workforce. Pandemics require incorporating public health ethics with clinical ethics.</p> 2022-05-31T08:56:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dian Permatasari Feeding intolerance in critically ill patients with Covid-19 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Marek Nalos <p>Approximately 0.5-1% of patients with COVID-19 develop respiratory failure, shock or multi-organ failure requiring intensive care unit admission. COVID-19 pneumonia is characterised by high fevers, increased energy utilisation and skeletal muscle catabolism. The delta variant has direct gastrointestinal effects resulting in diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. Combined these rapidly impair nutritional status. It is therefore important to quickly identify factors leading to feeding intolerance and manage them with a sense of urgency to prevent malnutrition during critical illness.</p> 2022-05-31T08:57:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Marek Nalos Healthy eating to maintain a healthy immune system in pandemic 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed <p>COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus, is primarily spread during close contact such as touching and by fluid droplets produced through cough, sneeze or talk. During this pandemic, good nutrition and a healthy lifestyle is extremely important, especially in ensuring good immune defence.</p> 2022-05-31T08:59:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed The Math+ protocol in Covid-19 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Joseph Varon <p>COVID19 is a highly heterogeneous and complex medical disorder; indeed, severe COVID-19 is probably amongst the most complex of medical conditions known to medical science. While there is no single ‘Silver Bullet’ to cure COVID-19, this severely disturbed pathological processes leading to respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19 organizing pneumonia will respond to the combination of Methylprednisone, Ascorbic acid, Thiamine, and full anticoagulation with Heparin (MATH+ protocol).</p> 2022-05-31T09:00:41+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Joseph Varon EPA, DHA, and coenzyme Q10 as nanonatruceuticals adjuvants in therapy against Covid-19 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Santiago Herrero <p>Up today, August 28, 2021, about 215,5 million people have been infected with the coronavirus SARS-CoV-19 and with a global death of 4,5 million. US deaths 636,7K (fatality 0,194) and Spain 97,7K (fatality 0,208).</p> <p>Many protocols have been implemented for the treatment of COVID-19 since the beginning of this pandemic throughout the world, but specific guidelines have never been made by the different international Societies with respect to unifying criteria for action given the diversity of treatments that do not have had adequate clinical evidence. Since the vaccination campaign began, treatment has focused on hospitalized patients, but no prophylactic or early-onset treatment has been offered, limiting their access simply to infections with serious symptoms.</p> 2022-05-31T09:01:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Santiago Herrero Nutritional strategies in Covid-19 patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 B. Ravinder Reddy <p>Nutritional support in infections, including that due to COVID-19, is a key aspect, as it has the potential to limit the severe intensity of inflammation, to modulate optimal immune responses, whilst, limiting the loss of lean-body mass, thereby&nbsp; promoting enhanced recovery. However, optimal function of the gastrointestinal tract is essential to provide adequate nutrition, with optimal digestion and absorption.</p> 2022-05-31T09:03:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 B. Ravinder Reddy From aging to healthy aging 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Patrick Kamphuis <p>“It’s not the years in the life, but the life in the years”. More and more people around the world are growing older than ever before, yet not everyone is doing so in good health. Nutrition is often an overlooked area of impact in helping older people maintain functional ability, as well as recover after moments of ill-health.</p> 2022-05-31T09:04:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Patrick Kamphuis Nutrition for elderly individuals during the Covid-19 pandemic 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Purwita Wijaya Laksmi <p>Aging process, genetic factor, lifestyle, and disease(s) give contribution to the phenotype of robust, prefrail or frail elderly. The frailer the elderly, the more vulnerable they become to poor health outcomes. Aged patients are more likely to have adverse outcomes from Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Recovery from such disease also take a longer time compared to the younger age group</p> 2022-05-31T09:07:20+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Purwita Wijaya Laksmi Vitamin D and immune responses: how much is too much? 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Nurul Ratna Mutu Manikam <p>Vitamin D is a sunshine vitamin that is widely known for bone health. The main source of vitamin D from exposure to ultraviolet B radiation, whereas only 20% from natural and fortified food. Recent studies concluded that vitamin D has a putative role in reducing the risk of viral respiratory infection by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines and delaying increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines response. Whereas, vitamin D regulates innate immunity through macrophage and dendrite cell activity as well as an adaptive immune response through lymphocyte T cells response.</p> 2022-05-31T09:08:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nurul Ratna Mutu Manikam Value of fish oil in nutrition therapy in Covid-19 illness 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Jonathan Asprer <p style="margin: 0cm; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #111111;" lang="EN-GB">Our expertise in the medical treatment of COVID-19 infections has grown with time and experience, resulting in the development of a cohesive overall therapeutic strategy for control of the viral infection from supportive measures for mild to moderate illness, to the full range of relevant organ support in critical illness in ICU. In parallel, our strategies for providing nutrition therapy have also evolved beyond the mere delivery of macronutrients (calories and protein) to the utilization of specific nutritional substrates that may play an important role in modifying the course of the disease and optimizing clinical outcomes. </span></p> 2022-05-31T09:11:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jonathan Asprer Medical nutritional therapy on schizophrenic patient with grade 2 obesity and continued antipsychotic drug use 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Andry Kelvianto Wiji Lestari Diana Sunardi <p>Patients suffering from schizophrenia have an elevated risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome due to multiple factors, including antipsychotic drug consumption. Diet and lifestyle modification remained the firstline modalities for management of obesity in patients with schizophrenia. Metformin &nbsp;has been recommended for preventing weight gain, including for schizophrenic patients with long-term consumption of psychiatric medication.</p> 2022-05-31T09:13:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Andry Kelvianto, Wiji Lestari, Diana Sunardi The impact of excessive weight gain on hypertension, steroid induced diabetes, and disease parameters in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients 2022-05-31T13:21:59+00:00 Damar Prasetya Sumadiono Sumadiono <p>Systemic inflammation, corticosteroids therapy, and reduced physical activity may predispose the accumulation of body fat in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, less is known about its impact in children.<sup>(1,2)</sup> This study aims to explore the impact of excessive weight gain on pediatric SLE patients.</p> 2022-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Damar Prasetya, Sumadiono Relationship between iron intake and iron status to stunted in children aged 24-35 months during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jakarta 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Akbar Husaini Angkat Dian Novita Chandra Novi Silvia Hardiany <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'TimesNewRomanPSMT';">Covid 19 pandemic has caused changes in the socioeconomic conditions, affects parents' ability to sustain their children nutritious food. If nutrients are insufficient for a long term is causing growth to be stunted.<br></span></p> </div> </div> </div> 2022-05-31T09:36:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Akbar Husaini Angkat, Dian Novita Chandra, Novi Silvia Hardiany Medical nutrition therapy and home monitoring in type 2 diabetes mellitus patient with metabolic syndrome and history of diabetic ketoacidosis 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Anak Agung Eka Widya Saraswati Yohannessa Wulandari Lily Indriani Octovia <p>Obesity, one of the risk factors for mtype 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is known to cause low-grade inflammation and increase T2DM morbidity. Obesity and T2DM also lead to other comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome. The provision of medical nutrition therapy accompanied with routine home monitoring could improve glycemic control and achieve therapeutic targets, simultaneously.</p> 2022-05-31T09:37:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Anak Agung Eka Widya Saraswati, Yohannessa Wulandari, Lily Indriani Octovia Medical nutrition therapy and vitamin D supplementation improved nutritional status and quality of life in relapse systemic lupus erythematosus patient 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Ayu Diandra Sari Yohannessa Wulandari Diyah Eka Andayani <p>Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays pivotal role in comprehensive management of autoimmune disease, includes systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Meanwhile, MNT for SLE is still not a concern in many international clinical practice guidelines. Many studies reported about nutritional declines and metabolic complications related to long term corticosteroid use in SLE patients, i.e. malnutrition, sarcopenia, hypovitaminosis D, hypertension and etc. Besides, obesity is more expected become important risk factor in SLE.</p> 2022-05-31T09:39:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ayu Diandra Sari, Yohannessa Wulandari, Diyah Eka Andayani Assessment of the nutrition intake of lactating women in Jakarta 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Diana Sunardi Dian Araminta Ramadhania Fransisca Olivia Reisa Melisa Wijaya Saptawati Bardosono <p>Nutrition is important for immune system. Lactating women are more susceptible to nutrient deficiencies therefore diseases. More attention to the intake status of lactating women is needed in order to optimize intervention when required. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of nutrient intake of lactating women in Jakarta</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-31T09:44:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diana Sunardi, Dian Araminta Ramadhania, Fransisca Olivia, Reisa Melisa Wijaya, Saptawati Bardosono The transiton of nutritional status at first year medical students during e-classes 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Nur Aini Djunet <p>The second wave of COVID-19 pandemic is resulting in second lockdown at Indonesia. This results in classes to only be allowed in online. It may lead to obesogenic situation. Obesity is the first comorbid factor for COVID-19 complications dan mortality. We aim to investigate the nutritional status and its related factor at medical students after a year of e-classes.</p> 2022-05-31T09:46:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nur Aini Djunet Correlation between zinc intake and hair zinc levels to morbidity of infectious diseases in children aged 24-35 months in Jakarta 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Dyah Arum Kusumaningtyas Diana Sunardi Rini Sekartini <p>According to WHO, &nbsp;preventable diseases, including &nbsp;infectious diseases, are the most common cause of death in children. Based on Indonesia's 2019 health profile data, the top five morbidity and mortality in children aged 1-4 years are acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) of (25.8%), pneumonia (21.7%), fever (14%), diarrhea and gastrointestinal disease (14.4%). Zinc has an important role in immunity especially for younger child</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-31T09:47:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dyah Arum Kusumaningtyas, Diana Sunardi, Rini Sekartini The characteristics of overweight and obese COVID-19 inpatients at Kebayoran Lama regional public hospital 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Vanessa Aryani Octavia Mardani <p>Coronavirus disease-2019/COVID-19 pandemic had affected globally. The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity globally have risen the concern on its additional impact to worsen this pandemic. Overweight and obesity have previously been shown to increase mortality and severity in patients with COVID-19. Based on those findings, we conducted a study at Kebayoran Lama Regional Public Hospital to provide real database regarding the characteristics of overweight and obese COVID-19 inpatients.</p> 2022-05-31T09:51:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Vanessa Aryani Octavia Mardani Calorie Intake of UKRIDA Students, Jakarta, Indonesia in 2021 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Dede Okky Tri Nurhasanah Gracia J. M. T Winaktu Luciana Budiati Sutanto Hartanto Hartanto <p>Calorie intake plays an important role in muscle contraction, concentration and organ functions. The recommendation of calorie intake, based on Indonesian RDA (AKG) 2019 for young adults, is 2250 kcal/day for women and 2650 kcal/day for men. Lack of calorie intake still occurs in faculty of medicine students in Semarang. This study aims to investigate the calorie intake of UKRIDA students, Jakarta, Indonesia in 2021.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-31T09:53:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dede Okky Tri Nurhasanah, Gracia J. M. T Winaktu, Luciana Budiati Sutanto, Hartanto Hartanto Overview of knowlegde, attitude and practice about breakfast among students in faculty of medicine and health sciences of Krida Wacana Christian University in 2020 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Christin Kaiwai Gracia JMT Winaktu Bhanu Bhanu Luciana Budiati Sutanto <p>Breakfast is beneficial for maintaining concentration, mental health, and improving cognitive function. Students are expected to have knowledge, attitude and good behavior regarding breakfast. This study aims to obtain an overview of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors about breakfast among students in Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of Krida Wacana Christian University, in 2020.</p> 2022-05-31T09:54:46+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Christin Kaiwai, Gracia JMT Winaktu, Bhanu Bhanu, Luciana Budiati Sutanto Effectiveness of digital interventions with application program to improve nutritional knowledge, mother's behavior and nutrition status of children under five 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Madinatul Munawwaroh Sapja Anantanyu Sumardiyono Sumardiyono <p>The problem of under-five nutrition is still a significant concern in developing countries, including Indonesia. Under-five nutritional problems are caused by multifactorial causes, therefore, nutrition education can be the key to intervention in children’s nutrition problems. With the current development of technology, it will be easier to intervene in nutritional problems through digital platforms, for example, using applications. This review aimed to analyze the effectiveness of digital interventions through applications on nutritional knowledge, mother’s behaviour, and nutritional status of children under-five</p> 2022-05-31T09:56:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Madinatul Munawwaroh, Sapja Anantanyu, Sumardiyono Sumardiyono Isotonic solution for management of high output fistula and stoma 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Marvin Marino Yosua Yan Kristian Evania Astella Setiawan Gabriella Nurahmani Putri Pauline Octaviani Diana Sunardi <p><em>Enterocutaneous fistulae</em> (ECF) is a common complication in open abdominal surgeries which is commonly fixed &nbsp;by creating a stoma. High-output ECF defined as production of fistulae more than 500 mL per day. It is one of the complications that can occur in the presence of a stoma, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, adequate management of high output ECF and stoma is important. Administration of isotonic solution is one of techniques proven to be beneficial in reducing stoma output and allowing persistent luminal stimulation. We reported a case of high-ileostomy and ECF output in which isotonic solution conveyed improvement in clinical outcome.</p> 2022-05-31T09:58:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Marvin Marino, Yosua Yan Kristian, Evania Astella Setiawan, Gabriella Nurahmani Putri, Pauline Octaviani, Diana Sunardi Obesity is associated with severe COVID-19 2022-05-31T13:22:00+00:00 Ni Gusti Made Anggreni Nur Hadi Carolina Paolin Kanaga <p>Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease (CAD) are comorbidities for severe COVID-19. Recently, there has been higher need for admission to intensive care unit (ICU), requiring oxygen support with high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) amongst COVID-19 patients with obesity. The relationship between obesity and severe dyspnoea in COVID-19 needs more investigation.</p> 2022-05-31T10:02:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ni Gusti Made Anggreni Nur Hadi, Carolina Paolin Kanaga